Flanges and types of flanges
A flange is a projecting flat surface, typically circular, that is used to connect or secure two sections of pipe, a pipe to a valve or pump, or a pipe to a piece of equipment. Flanges are typically made of metal, such as steel or stainless steel, and are bolted or welded to the connecting surfaces. There are several types of flanges, each with unique features and uses. Some common types of flanges include: Slip-on flanges: These flanges have a bore that is slightly larger than the connecting pipe, allowing the pipe to slip into the flange and be secured by fillet welds. Weld neck flanges: These flanges have a neck that extends from the base of the flange and is welded to the connecting pipe. This provides extra strength and stability to the connection. Blind flanges: These flanges have no bore and are used to close off the end of a pipe or piece of equipment. Lap joint flanges: These flanges are similar to slip-on flanges but have a radius at the intersection of the flange face and the bore to accommodate a lap stub end. Threaded flanges: These flanges have threads on the inside of the flange that allow it to be screwed onto a pipe. Socket weld flanges: These flanges are similar to slip-on flanges but have a bore that is slightly smaller than the connecting pipe. The pipe is inserted into the flange and fillet welded to secure the connection. Spectacle flanges: These flanges are made of two metal discs, one solid and the other with a central hole, that are bolted together to form a "spectacle" shape. They are mainly used for isolation or maintenance purpose. Each type of flange has its own specific uses and applications. it's essential to choose the right type of flange for the job and to properly install and maintain the flanges to ensure the safety and reliability of the piping system.